Natural Gas

Natural gas is one of the cleanest modern day fuels for the industrial and domestic use, being efficient and non-polluting. Due to its characteristic clean burning nature and availability by pipeline connection which alleviates the need for local storages and other transportation logistics, natural gas emerged as the fuel of choice, growing steadily in the energy basket of major nations.

Natural Gas comes in 4 basic forms
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Natural Gas which has been liquefied at – (Minus) 160 degree Centigrade. Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in large volumes in cryogenic tankers across seas / land.
Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas (RLNG) – LNG Re-gasified at import terminals before transporting it to consumers through Pipelines.
Compressed Natural gas (CNG) - Natural Gas compressed to a pressure of 200-250 kg/cm2 used as fuel for transportation. CNG decreases vehicular pollution on the virtue of being cleaner fuel than liquid fuels.
Piped Natural gas (PNG) - Natural Gas distributed through a pipeline network that has safety valves to maintain the pressure, assuring safe, uninterrupted supply to the domestic sector for cooking and heating / cooling applications.
Sector Natural Gas is used
Power Sector As fuel for base load power plants In combined cycle/co-generation power plants
Fertilizer Industry As feed stock in the production of ammonia and urea
Industrial As an under boiler fuel for raising steam As fuel in furnaces and heating applications
Domestic and commercial It is used as PNG and CPNG for cooking and fuel respectively.
Automotive It is used as an eco-friendly fuel.
Petrochemicals As the raw material from which a variety of chemical products e.g. methanol, are derived

Natural Gas Transmission

Natural Gas, , a new age fuel is the cleanest, efficient, non-polluting, environmental friendly and relatively economical of the fossil fuel in the modern day industrial society.

Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure connects various gas sources to different gas markets to meet the existing/ future natural gas demand of various Powers, Fertilizer, CGD and other industries in the Country. The gas pipeline infrastructure has facilitated widespread industrialization and has brought significant socio-economic changes to different parts of the country.

A big challenge lies in bridging the physical gap between demand and supply centers in an efficient, safe and eco-friendly manner. Pipeline transportation of gas offers a safe, economic and environmentally sound alternative to most other modes of energy transport.

The Government recognizes the need to augment the natural gas transmission infrastructure in the country and has been driving the development of natural gas pipeline connecting all regions of the country which is shaping-up into Natural Gas Grid (NGG).

“Over the years, GAIL as a major gas pipeline operator has contributed to the growth and development of natural gas pipeline infrastructure and natural gas market. It has an existing 16271 Km. of gas pipeline network with a capacity of 208 MMSCMD. GAIL’s existing natural gas pipeline network covers 20 States (Andhra Pradesh,Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand and West Bengal) and 3 UT’s (Delhi, Puducherry & Dadra Nagar Haveli)”.

  Operational Natural Gas Pipelines of GAIL
  Common Carrier + Dedicated  
Sl. No. Network/ Region# Length (KM)*
1 Agartala Network 65
2 Cauvery Basin 272
3 Chhainsa-Jhajjar-Hissar Pipeline Network (CJPL) 444
4 Dabhol-Bengaluru Pipeline Network (DBPL) 1147
5 Dadri-Bawana-Nangal Pipeline Network 983
6 Dahej-Uran-Dabhol Pipeline Network 943
7 Gujarat Regional Pipeline Network 609
8 Integrated HVJ 6729
9 Jagdishpur-Haldia-Bokaro-Dhamra (JHBDPL) 3165
10 KG Basin Pipeline Network 919
11 Kochi-Koottanad-Bengaluru-Mangaluru Pipeline Network (KKBMPL) 644
12 Mumbai Regional Pipeline Network 125
13 Dedicated Networks 226
  Total Length 16271
#As per PNGRB As on 30th June 2024

Ongoing Cross Country Pipeline Projects

Natural gas pipelines are the core and strategic assets for India’s energy security and backbone to achieve the gas based economy. GAIL is in constant endeavour to expand its pipeline infrastructure across the length and breadth of the country as a part of National Gas Grid. With the execution of in hand pipeline projects, GAIL is expanding its natural gas pipeline infrastructure on PAN India basis.

S No. Projects Total Length (in Km) Total Investment (in Rs Crore) Commissioned as on Mar'24 Under Construction as on Mar'24 States covered
1 Jagdishpur Haldia and Bokaro Dhamra Pipeline (JHBDPL) 2,561 13,414 2,267 294 Uttra Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand and West Bengal
2 Barauni Guwahati Pipeline (BGPL) 727 3,992 717 9 Bihar,West Bengal and Assam
3 Coimbatore to Krishnagiri Pipeline(Part of Kochi-koottanad-Bengaluru-Mangaluru Pipeline Phase- II) 901 5,909 579 322 Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
4 Srikakulam Angul Pipeline (SAPL) 744 2,658 0 744 Odisha and Andhra Pradesh
5 Mumbai Nagpur Jharsuguda Pipeline(MNJPL) 1,755 7,844 0 1,755 Maharashtra,Madhya Pradesh,Chhattisgarh and Odisha
6 Dhamra Haldia Pipeline (DHPL) 253 1,031 150 103 Odisha and West Bengal
7 Gurdaspur-Jammu Pipeline 160 522 0 160 Punjab and UT of Jammu







*Updated on 02nd April, 2024

Other Ongoing Projects

S No. Projects under execution Details Investment (Rs. Cr.) States covered
1 Pipeline Replacement Projects
KG Basin Ph-3
Pipeline replacement of 30 Km 133 Andhra Pradesh
2 Uran-Usar Liquid Propane Pipeline Project 12” X 46 Km Pipeline 309 Maharashtra
3 Tie in Connectivity Projects Tie in connectivity to CBM field Bokaro & CBM field Jharia (Total length 29 Km) 115 Jharkhand, Gujarat
4 Green Hydrogen Project, Vijaipur 4.3 TPD Green Hydrogen Generation by PEM Electrolyzer 231 Madhya Pradesh
5 Consumer Connectivity Last Mile Connectivities to consumers (6 nos.) & CGD Hook-up Projects (46 nos.) 310 Pan India Basis
  Total   1,158  

GAIL shall continue to meet the noble objective of supply and transportation of natural gas through its state of art natural gas transmission pipeline system and shall contribute to the growth and Industrialization in India. GAIL is continuously playing the vital role in development of National Gas Grid and providing pipeline connectivity to the prospective customers i.e. industrial, commercial, domestic etc. located along GAIL’s pipeline network.

Gas - Marketing

Since inception in 1984, GAIL has been the undisputed leader in the marketing, transmission and distribution of Natural Gas in India. As India's leading Natural Gas Major, it has been instrumental in the development of the Natural Gas market in the country.

Currently, GAIL sells around 52% of natural gas sold in the country. Of this, 21% is to the power sector and 43% to the fertilizer sector approximately. Presently, GAIL is supplying around 42 MMSCMD of Natural Gas from domestic sources to customers across India. These customers range from the smallest of companies to mega power and fertilizer plants. GAIL has established a Gas Management System to handle multiple sources of supply and delivery of gas in co-mingled form and provide a seamless interface between shippers, customers, transporters and suppliers. We are present in 20 states, i.e., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand and West Bengal besides the Union Territories of Puducherry, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh. We are further extending our coverage to the state of Odisha through our upcoming pipelines.

GAIL is actively pursuing opportunities in inter-regional gas trade both in the form of pipeline gas and LNG.


Liquefied natural gas

GAIL (India) Limited has signed Master Sales and Purchase Agreements (MSPAs) with several major reputed International LNG Suppliers, Producers and Traders.

GAIL has been off-taking RLNG from Petronet LNG Limited (PLL) under its long-term SPA being supplied from Qatar and Australia. GAIL has also been successful in securing LNG under long term agreements from suppliers like Sabine Pass, Cove Point USA etc. For its LNG portfolio, GAIL has chartered several LNG vessels on spot and time charter basis. With growing gas demand in India, GAIL brings most of the US volumes to India through an optimal mix of own ship charters and structured optimization transactions like Destination Swap, etc.

In addition to the above GAIL’s wholly owned subsidiary, GAIL Global Singapore Pte Ltd (GGSPL), is operating in LNG trading business segment.

Energy Conversion Matrix

Frequently used General Conversions in the Gas Industry
1 SCM (Standard Cubic Meter) = 1 cubic metre @ 1 atmosphere pressure and 15.56 ° C
1 Cubic Metre = 35.31 Cubic feet  
1 BCM(Billion Cubic Metre) / Year of gas (consumption or production) = 2.74 MMSCMD 365 Days a Year
1 TCF (Trillion Cubic Feet) of Gas Reserve = 3.88 MMSCMD 100% Recoverable for 20 years @ 365 days / Annum)
1 MMTPA of LNG =3.60 MMSCMD Mol.Weight of 18 @ 365 days/Annum)
1 MT of LNG =1314 SCM Mol.Weight of 18
Gross Calorific Value (GCV) 10000 Kcal/ SCM  
Net Calorific Value (NCV) 90% of GCV  
1 Million BTU (MMBTU) = 25.2 SCM @10000 Kcal/SCM; 1 MMBTU= 252,000 Kcal)
Specific Gravity of Gas =0.62 Molecular Weight of Dry Air=28.964 gm/mole)
Density of Gas =0.76 Kg/SCM Mol.Weight of Gas 18 gm/mol
Gas required for 1 MW of Power generation =4541 SCM per Day Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM
Power Generation from 1 MMSCMD Gas =220 MWH Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM

Also in this Section