Natural Gas

Natural gas is one of the cleanest modern day fuels for the industrial and domestic use, being efficient and non-polluting. Due to its characteristic clean burning nature and availability by pipeline connection which alleviates the need for local storages and other transportation logistics, natural gas emerged as the fuel of choice, growing steadily in the energy basket of major nations.

Natural Gas comes in 4 basic forms
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Natural Gas which has been liquefied at – (Minus) 160 degree Centigrade. Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in large volumes in cryogenic tankers across seas / land.
Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas (RLNG) – LNG Re-gasified at import terminals before transporting it to consumers through Pipelines.
Compressed Natural gas (CNG) - Natural Gas compressed to a pressure of 200-250 kg/cm2 used as fuel for transportation. CNG decreases vehicular pollution on the virtue of being cleaner fuel than liquid fuels.
Piped Natural gas (PNG) - Natural Gas distributed through a pipeline network that has safety valves to maintain the pressure, assuring safe, uninterrupted supply to the domestic sector for cooking and heating / cooling applications.
Sector Natural Gas is used
Power Sector As fuel for base load power plants In combined cycle/co-generation power plants
Fertilizer Industry As feed stock in the production of ammonia and urea
Industrial As an under boiler fuel for raising steam As fuel in furnaces and heating applications
Domestic and commercial It is used as PNG and CPNG for cooking and fuel respectively.
Automotive It is used as an eco-friendly fuel.
Petrochemicals As the raw material from which a variety of chemical products e.g. methanol, are derived

Natural Gas Transmission

Natural Gas, a new age fuel is the cleanest, efficient, non-polluting, environmental friendly and relatively economical of the fossil fuel in the modern day industrial society.

Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure connects various gas sources to different gas markets to meet the existing/ future natural gas demand of various Powers, Fertilizer, CGD and other industries in the Country. The gas pipeline infrastructure has facilitated widespread industrialization and has brought significant socio-economic changes to different parts of the country.

A big challenge lies in bridging the physical gap between demand and supply centers in an efficient, safe and eco-friendly manner. Pipeline transportation of gas offers a safe, economic and environmentally sound alternative to most other modes of energy transport.

The Government recognizes the need to augment the natural gas transmission infrastructure in the country and has been driving the development of natural gas pipeline connecting all regions of the country which is shaping-up into Natural Gas Grid (NGG)..

Over the years, GAIL as a major gas pipeline operator has contributed to the growth and development of natural gas pipeline infrastructure and natural gas market. It has an existing 13,340 Km. of gas pipeline network with a capacity of 204 MMSCMD. GAIL’s existing natural gas pipeline network covers 19 States (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand) and 2 UT’s ( Puducherry & Dadra Nagar Haveli).

  Operational Natural Gas Pipelines of GAIL
  Common Carrier + Dedicated  
Sl. No. Network/ Region Length (KM)*
1 Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur & Gas Rehabilitation and Expansion Project & Dahej-Vijaipur Pipeline Network (HVJ-GREP-DVPL-I) 4953
2 Dahej-Vijaipur Pipeline (II) & Vijaipur-Dadri Pipeline Network. 1328
3 Tripura Network 61
4 Cauvery Basin 276
5 Chhainsa-Jhajjar-Hissar Pipeline Network (CJPL) 309
6 Dahej-Uran-Panvel-Dabhol Pipeline Network 930
7 Dadri-Bawana-Nangal Pipeline Network 862
8 Dabhol-Bengaluru Pipeline Network (DBPL) 1143
9 Gujarat Regional Pipeline Network 706
10 Jaisalmer Regional Pipeline Network 153
11 Jagdishpur Haldia & Barauni Guwahati Pipeline Network (JHBDPL) 1098
12 KG Basin Pipeline Network 892
13 Kochi-Koottanad-Bengaluru-Mangaluru Pipeline Network (KKBMPL) 498
14 Mumbai Regional Pipeline Network 131
  Total Length 13340
*As on 15th February,2021

Ongoing Cross Country Pipeline Projects

Natural gas pipelines are the core and strategic assets for India’s energy security and backbone to achieve the gas based economy. GAIL is in constant endeavor to expand its pipeline infrastructure across the length and breadth of the country as a part of National Gas Grid. With the execution of in hand pipeline projects, GAIL is expanding its natural gas pipeline infrastructure on PAN India basis and its presence will be across 24 States/UT.

S No. Projects Length (in Km) Investment(in Rs Crore) States covered
1 Jagdishpur Haldia and Bokaro Dhamra Pipeline(JHBDPL) Phase-2 & 3 1905 9154 Bihar,
Odisha and West Bengal
2 Barauni Guwahati Pipeline (BGPL) 729 3060 Bihar,
West Bengal and Assam
3 Vijaipur Auraiya Pipeline (VAPL) 352 2881 Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
4 Kochi-Koottanad-Bengaluru-Mangaluru Pipeline(KKBMPL) Phase- II 443 3058 Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
5 Srikakulam Angul Pipeline (SAPL) 774 2658 Odisha and Andhra Pradesh
6 Mumbai Nagpur Jharsuguda Pipeline(MNJPL) 1755 7844 Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh and Odisha
7 Dhamra Haldia Pipeline (DHPL) 253 1030 Odisha and West Bengal
8 Sultanpur- Jhajjar-Hissar Pipeline (SJHPL) 135 327 Haryana
9 Haridwar-Rishikesh-Dehradun Pipeline (HRDPL) 50 218 Uttarakhand






Other Ongoing Projects

S No. Projects under execution Details Investment (Rs. Cr.) States covered
1 City Gas Distribution network in 6 cities along JHBDPL Pipeline CGD Connectivity to Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Patna, Cuttack, Ranchi & Jamshedpur 1578 Uttar Pradesh,
2 Pipeline Replacement Projects
  • KG Basin Ph-3
  • Gujarat
Pipeline replacement of 109 Km 250 Andhra Pradesh,
3 Gandhar Compressor Project Sustained Evacuation of Gas from Gandhar Fields by installing a 3.5 MMSCMD Gas Compressor. 226 Gujarat
4 Compressed Bio Gas, Ranchi Setting up of Compressed Bio Gas Plant of Capacity 5 TPD 28 Jharkhand
5 Other Projects Last Mile Connectivities to consumers, Tie-in connectivities, CGD Hookup Projects etc. 877 Pan India Basis
  Total   2959  

GAIL shall continue to meet the noble objective of supply and transportation of natural gas through its state of art natural gas transmission pipeline system and shall contribute to the growth and Industrialization in India. GAIL is continuously playing the vital role in development of National Gas Grid and providing pipeline connectivity to the prospective customers i.e. industrial, commercial, domestic etc. located along GAIL’s pipeline network.

Gas - Marketing

Since inception in 1984, GAIL has been the undisputed leader in the marketing, transmission and distribution of Natural Gas in India. As India's leading Natural Gas Major, it has been instrumental in the development of the Natural Gas market in the country.

Currently, GAIL sells around 60% of Natural Gas sold in the country. Of this, 29% is to the power sector and 34% to the fertilizer sector. Currently, GAIL is supplying around 49 MMSCMD of Natural Gas from domestic sources to customers across India. These customers range from the smallest of companies to mega power and fertilizer plants. GAIL has adopted a Gas Management System to handle multiple sources of supply and delivery of gas in a co-mingled form and provide a seamless interface between shippers, customers, transporters and suppliers. We are present in 18 states, i.e., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Goa, Punjab, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Tripura besides the Union Territories of Puducherry, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh. We are further extending our coverage to states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar through our upcoming pipelines.

GAIL is actively pursuing opportunities in inter-regional gas trade both in the form of Pipeline gas and LNG.

GAIL has also been entrusted in carrying our pooling of RLNG for fertilizer sector. In the past GAIL has also successfully implemented Government sponsored RLNG policy for power sector.


Liquefied natural gas

GAIL has signed more than 30 Master Sales Purchase Agreements (MSPAs) with major reputed International LNG suppliers, Producers and Traders. GAIL has been off-taking RLNG from PLL under its long term SPA being supplied from Qatar and Australia.

GAIL has been successful in securing LNG under long term agreements from suppliers like Sabine Pass, US, Dominion Cove USA etc. For its LNG portfolio, GAIL is in the process of chartering LNG ships. In addition GAIL, wholly owned subsidiary, GAIL Global Singapore Pte Ltd (GGSPL), is operating in LNG trading business segment. GGSPL on its own has MSPAs with more than 35 counter parties. GAIL intends to pursue LNG trading opportunities through GGSPL.

Energy Conversion Matrix

Frequently used General Conversions in the Gas Industry
1 SCM (Standard Cubic Meter) = 1 cubic metre @ 1 atmosphere pressure and 15.56 ° C
1 Cubic Metre = 35.31 Cubic feet  
1 BCM(Billion Cubic Metre) / Year of gas (consumption or production) = 2.74 MMSCMD 365 Days a Year
1 TCF (Trillion Cubic Feet) of Gas Reserve = 3.88 MMSCMD 100% Recoverable for 20 years @ 365 days / Annum)
1 MMTPA of LNG =3.60 MMSCMD Mol.Weight of 18 @ 365 days/Annum)
1 MT of LNG =1314 SCM Mol.Weight of 18
Gross Calorific Value (GCV) 10000 Kcal/ SCM  
Net Calorific Value (NCV) 90% of GCV  
1 Million BTU (MMBTU) = 25.2 SCM @10000 Kcal/SCM; 1 MMBTU= 252,000 Kcal)
Specific Gravity of Gas =0.62 Molecular Weight of Dry Air=28.964 gm/mole)
Density of Gas =0.76 Kg/SCM Mol.Weight of Gas 18 gm/mol
Gas required for 1 MW of Power generation =4541 SCM per Day Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM
Power Generation from 1 MMSCMD Gas =220 MWH Station Heat Rate (SHR); ~ 1720 Kcal/Kwh-NCV (50% Thermal Efficiency); N.Gas GCV- @10000 Kcal/SCM

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